The authors belonging to school of "the human relations" also considered that the conflict it is possible and it is necessary to avoid. They allowed possibility of emergence of contradictions between the purposes of individuals and the purposes of the organization, opportunities of one person and various groups of heads, etc. But from the point of view of the concept of "the human relations" the conflict is a sign of inefficient activity of the organization and bad management.
Possibility of the conflict increases as the organizations become more specialized and break into divisions. It occurs because specialized divisions formulate the purposes and can pay bigger attention to their achievement, than the purposes of all organization.
In scientific literature different types of the conflicts are allocated. For example, Meskon, Albert, Hedouri distinguish four main types of the conflict: intra personal, interpersonal, the conflict between the personality and group and the intergroup conflict.
The term "conflict" has a set of various definitions. In administrative science the conflict is considered as lack of a consent between two or more parties. Certain people, small groups, or the whole collectives can be subjects of the conflict.
The interpersonal conflict is the most widespread type of the conflict. In the organizations it is shown differently. Most often it is fight of heads for resources, the capital, labor, approval of the project, etc. Each of them tries to convince higher heads to accept his point of view. The interpersonal conflict can be also shown as collision of persons.
At the correct arrangement of human resources in the organization, at right processing of conflict situations there is a certain break, synergetic effect when 2+2 is 5, but not the Organization becomes something big, than the sum of components.
Modern approach to essence of the conflict considers it as inevitable, and even in certain cases a necessary element of activity of the organization. Quite often the conflict has negative character. It can sometimes disturb satisfaction of needs of the individual and achievement of the objectives of the organization in general. But in many situations the conflict helps to reveal a variety of the points of view, gives additional information, helps to reveal bigger number of alternatives or problems. It does process of decision-making by group by more effective, and also gives the chance to people to express the thoughts, to satisfy the personal needs in respect and the power. It can also lead to more effective implementation of plans, strategy and projects as discussion of various points of view on these documents happens to their actual ispolneniya.2
Distinction in a manner of behavior and life experience can also increase probability of emergence of the conflict. For example, people with traits of character which do them authoritative, dogmatic, indifferent to self-esteem of other people, most often enter the conflict. Distinctions in life experience, values, education, an experience, age and social characteristics reduce extent of mutual understanding and cooperation between representations of various divisions.
Unsatisfactory communications, bad information transfer can be both the reason, and a conflict consequence. She can act as the conflict catalyst, preventing certain workers or group to understand a situation or the points of view of others. Other widespread problems of information transfer causing the conflict - ambiguous criteria of quality, inability precisely to define functions of all employees and divisions, and also presentation of mutually exclusive requirements to work. 4
The intra personal conflict - a special type of the conflict. One of its most widespread forms - the role conflict. Its essence consists that to the person inconsistent requirements for an occasion of what has to be the result of its work are imposed. Also similar conflict can arise as a result production requirements will not be agreed with personal requirements or values of the person. Besides, the intra personal conflict, perhaps, is the answer to an overload in work or small loading.
As it was noted earlier, the conflict can have both positive, and negative consequences. Positive consequences of the conflict are, first, that the problem is solved by such way which we accept for all parties, and as a result employees feel the participation in the solution of this problem. It minimizes difficulties in implementation of the made decisions - hostility, forcedness to arrive against will. Another positive the consequence of the conflict consists that the parties are more located to cooperation in future conflict situations. The conflict can also reduce conformality, inertness of thinking when subordinates do not state ideas which contradict ideas of their heads. 5